Mustapha, Umar Farouk, Abobi, Seth and Quarcoo, Gerard (2020) Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality of Public Swimming Pools in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. J — Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal, 3 (2). pp. 236-249. DOI

[img] Text
Abobi.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0.

Download (1MB)


The study focused on the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of public swimming pools in the Tamale Metropolis. Physicochemical properties such as pH, temperature, and conductivity, and bacteria counts—including total coliform, faecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus, and total heterotrophic bacteria—were analyzed for their conformity with required health standards. The results obtained were analyzed using Student t test and compared with World Health Organization (WHO) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for safe recreational and drinking water. The highest and the lowest temperatures were recorded in April (32.53 °C) and February (28.16 °C), respectively. The lowest and the highest mean pH values were 4.04 and 6.13, which were below acceptable standards. The conductivity level varied from 469.1563 µS cm−1 to 928.1563 µS cm−1. While the pH did not conform to acceptable standards, temperature and conductivity were within the EPA and/or the WHO acceptable limits. The total coliform (TC) expressed in colony-forming units per 100 mL ranged from 0 to 397 (cfu/100 mL), faecal coliform (FC) 0 to196 cfu/100 mL, E. coli 0 to 52 cfu/100 mL, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) 8 to 27 cfu/100 mL, and Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) 44 to 197 (cfu/mL). TC, FC, E. coli, S. aureus, and THB counts in most of the samples complied with the bacteriological standards. However, the bacterial loads increased and exceeded the WHO and/or EPA standards as the number of bathers increased. Besides, there were positive correlations between physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, and bacterial loads. Most parameters studied met the acceptable standards of recreational water stipulated by the WHO and EPA. However, the presence of pathogenic organisms in the recreational waters at any point in time should be treated as a public health concern, and hence a call for routine monitoring and inspection of public swimming pools in the Tamale Metropolis.

Document Type: Article
Programme Area: UNSPECIFIED
Research affiliation:
Integrated Modelling > Resource Management
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: Yes
ISSN: 2571-8800
Date Deposited: 16 Oct 2023 16:52
Last Modified: 16 Oct 2023 16:52

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item