Akyeampong, Enoch, Bend, John R, Luginaah, Isaac, Oscar Yawson, David, Jerry Cobbina, Samuel, Ato Armah, Frederick, Osei Adu, Michael, Kofi Essumang, David, Iddi, Samuel, Botwe, Paul K ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0300-2736 and Quansah, Reginald (2022) Urinary Pesticide Residual Levels and Acute Respiratory Infections in Children Under 5 Years of Age: Findings From the Offinso North Farm Health Study. Environmental Health Insights, 16 . p. 117863022210944. DOI https://doi.org/10.1177/11786302221094418.

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Abstract

Background:
Several environmental factors are associated with the risk of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) and upper respiratory infections (URIs) in children under 5 years of age (YOA). Evidence implicating chemical pesticides remains equivocal. There are also no data on this subject in these children in Ghana. This study investigated the association between urinary pesticide residual levels and the risk for ALRIs/URIs in children under 5 YOA.

Methods:
The participants for this study were from the Offinso North Farm Health Study, a population-based cross-sectional study. Two hundred and fifty four parents/guardians who had answered affirmatively to the question “Has your child ever accompanied you to the farm?” were interviewed on household socio-demographic and environmental factors, being breastfed, child education, age, gender, and respiratory infection. One hundred fifty children were randomly selected to provide the first void urine.

Results:
The proportion of children with ALRI was 22.1% and those with URI was 35.8%. We observed a statistically significant exposure-response relation of p,p′-DDE (tertile) with ALRI (1.7-3.2 µg/L urine: prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.22 [1.05-1.70], ⩾3.2 µg/L urine: 1.50 [1.07-3.53] [P-for trend = .0297]). This observation was in children older than two YOA (P-for trend = .0404). Delta-HCH and beta-HCH (2-levels) were significantly associated with ALRI but not URI. The risk of ALRI increased with deltamethrin levels in an exposure-response manner (2.5-9.5 µg/L urine: 2.10 [1.37-3.24], ⩾9.5 µg/L urine: 4.38 [1.87-10.32] [P-for trend = .0011]) and this was also observed in children older than two YOA. Similar observation was noted for URI. Bifenthrin (>0.5 µg/L urine) was positively associated with ALRI and URI whereas permethrin (⩾1.2 µg/L urine) was not associated only with URI.

Conclusions:
The present study supports the hypothesis that exposure to chemical pesticides is associated with respiratory infections in children under 5 YOA.

Document Type: Article
Programme Area: PA2
Research affiliation: Biogeochemistry and Geology > Submarine Groundwater Discharge
Biogeochemistry and Geology > Geoecology & Carbonate Sedimentology
Affiliations > Not ZMT
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: Yes
DOI etc.: https://doi.org/10.1177/11786302221094418
ISSN: 1178-6302
Date Deposited: 27 May 2022 12:05
Last Modified: 27 May 2022 12:05
URI: http://cris.leibniz-zmt.de/id/eprint/4935

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