Estradivari, , Agung, Muh. Firdaus, Adhuri, Dedi Supriadi, Ferse, Sebastian C.A. ORCID:, Sualia, Ita, Andradi-Brown, Dominic A., Campbell, Stuart J., Iqbal, Mohamad, Jonas, Harry D., Lazuardi, Muhammad Erdi, Nanlohy, Hellen, Pakiding, Fitryanti, Pusparini, Ni Kadek Sri, Ramadhana, Hikmah C., Ruchimat, Toni, Santiadji, I Wayan Veda, Timisela, Natelda R., Veverka, Laura and Ahmadia, Gabby N. (2022) Marine conservation beyond MPAs: Towards the recognition of other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) in Indonesia. Marine Policy, 137 . p. 104939. DOI

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In a marine environment that is rapidly changing due to anthropogenic activities and climate change, area-based
management tools are often used to mitigate threats and conserve biodiversity. Marine protected areas (MPAs)
are amongst the most widespread and recognized marine conservation tools worldwide, however, MPAs
alone are inadequate to address the environmental crisis. The promotion of other effective area-based conservation
measures (OECMs) under draft Target 3 of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, i.e., conserving
30% of marine areas by 2030, holds promise to acknowledge sites and practices occurring beyond MPAs that
contribute to conservation. Here, we evaluate the potential recognition of OECMs into Indonesia’s national
policy framework on marine resource management and provide the first-ever overview of distribution and types
of potential marine OECMs in Indonesia, including a review of the existing evidence on conservation
effectiveness. We identified > 390 potential marine OECMs, led by government, customary and local
communities, or the private sector, towards diverse management objectives, including habitat protection,
traditional/customary management, fisheries, tourism, or other purposes. While some evidence exists regarding
the conservation effectiveness of these practices, the long-term impacts on biodiversity of all potential marine
OECMs in Indonesia are unknown. Many OECM elements have been included in several national policies, yet
there are no established mechanisms to identify, recognize and report sites as OECMs in Indonesia. We propose
four transformational strategies for future OECM recognition in Indonesia, namely: (i) safeguard customary and and traditional communities, (ii) leverage cross-sector and cross-scale collaboration, (iii) focus on delivering outcomes, and (iv) streamline legal frameworks. Our study shows that OECMs have the potential to play a significant role in underpinning marine area-based conservation in Indonesia, including supporting the Government of Indonesia in reaching national and international conservation targets and goals.

Document Type: Article
Programme Area: PA2
Research affiliation: Affiliations > Not ZMT
Science Management > Future Earth Coasts Office
Ecology > Fish Ecology and Evolution
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.:
ISSN: 0308597X
Date Deposited: 28 Jan 2022 15:01
Last Modified: 23 Mar 2022 10:05

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