Lukas, Martin Christian (2013) Political Transformation and Watershed Governance in Java: Actors and Interests. In: Governing the Provision of Ecosystem Services. ; 4 , ed. by Muradian, R. and Rival, L.. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 111-132. DOI

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Current modes of and challenges in watershed and forest governance in Java should be understood as result of long-standing struggles over the access to and control of natural resources. These struggles are closely intertwined with sociopolitical discourses, international development and environmental management paradigms and the broader revolutionary political transformations in Indonesia. The latter have tremendously exacerbated environmental degradation by transforming many state forests and plantation lands into political battlefields. At the same time, they have opened windows of opportunity for transitions towards new, possibly more sustainable modes of watershed and forest governance. These transitions are characterised by an increasing fragmentation of the previous centralistic, top-down oriented state apparatus into a more fluid network of nodes of power and influence. While some fragments of the previous hierarchically integrated structure continue to persist as powerful albeit less visible nodes of influence and repression, others slowly emerge as promoters of sociopolitical change. New actors and networks expand into the new spaces of an increasingly open political arena. They question established discourses and patterns of resource access and control and develop new, more participatory, more locally based management approaches. Ongoing struggles between ‘old’ and ‘new’ political forces are imprinted in today’s landscape. Current patterns of forest and watershed degradation are a visible sign of the struggles for and conflicts over new modes of governance, which are hopefully socially and ecologically more sustainable.

Document Type: Book chapter
Programme Area: UNSPECIFIED
Research affiliation: Social Sciences > Social-Ecological Systems Analysis
Affiliations > Not ZMT
DOI etc.:
ISSN: 1389-6954
Date Deposited: 21 Aug 2019 13:38
Last Modified: 01 Oct 2020 12:59

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