Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Meltwater as a source of potentially bioavailable iron to Antarctica waters

  • Donata Monien (a1) (a2), Patrick Monien (a1) (a3), Robert Brünjes (a1), Tatjana Widmer (a1), Arne Kappenberg (a1), Adrian A. Silva Busso (a4), Bernhard Schnetger (a1) and Hans-Jürgen Brumsack (a1)...
Abstract

Recent rapid retreat of glacial front lines and the loss of land ice along the Antarctic margins may play an important role in exporting suspended particulate matter (SPM) potentially rich in bioavailable (defined as ascorbate leachable) iron (FeA) to coastal areas of the Southern Ocean. Sediment ablation is an additional source of iron for this high-nutrient low-chlorophyll region. In Potter Cove, King George Island, meltwater streams discharge up to 18 000 mg l-1 (average 283 mg l-1) of slightly weathered, finely ground bedrock particles into coastal waters during the summer. Approximately 15% of this SPM is exported within a low-salinity surface plume into Bransfield Strait. Based on our data, an estimated 12 mg m-2 yr-1 of FeA is exported from the South Shetland Island land surface (ice-free and subglacial areas) to the surrounding coastal waters. Extrapolated to an area of 2.5x104 km2, this FeA input is comparable to the contribution from icebergs and c. 240-fold higher than aeolian input via dust. An observed rise in local sediment accumulation rates suggests that glacial erosion has been increasing over recent decades and that (sub-)glacially derived SPM is becoming more important as a source of iron to the Southern Ocean.

Copyright
Corresponding author
donata.monien@leibniz-zmt.de
Footnotes
Hide All
p1

Current address: Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstraße 6, 28359 Bremen, Germany

p2

Current address: University of Bremen, Petrology of the Ocean Crust, Klagenfurter Straße 2-4, D-28359 Bremen, Germany

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Ardelan, M.V., Holm-Hansen, O., Hewes, C.D., Reiss, C.S., Silva, N.S., Dulaiova, H., Steinnes, E. & Sakshaug, E. 2010. Natural iron enrichment around the Antarctic Peninsula in the Southern Ocean. Biogeosciences, 7, 1125.
Blain, S., Tréguer, P., Belviso, S., Bucciarelli, E., Denis, M., Desabre, S., Fiala, M., Jezequel, V.M., Le Fevre, J., Mayzaud, P., Marty, J.C. & Razouls, S. 2001. A biogeochemical study of the island mass effect in the context of the iron hypothesis: Kerguelen Islands, Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Research I - Oceanographic Research Papers, 48, 163187.
Breitbarth, E., Achterberg, E.P., Ardelan, M. V., Baker, A.R., Bucciarelli, E., Chever, F., Croot, P.L., Duggen, S., Gledhill, M., Hassellov, M., Hassler, C., Hoffmann, L.J., Hunter, K.A., Hutchins, D.A., Ingri, J., Jickells, T., Lohan, M.C., Nielsdottir, M.C., Sarthou, G., Schoemann, V., Trapp, J.M., Turner, D.R. & Ye, Y. 2010. Iron biogeochemistry across marine systems – progress from the past decade. Biogeosciences, 7, 10751097.
Eraso, A. & Dominguez, M.C. 2007. Physicochemical characteristics of the subglacier discharge in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica. In Tyk, A. & Stefaniak, K., eds. Karst and cryokarst. Katowice: Department of Geomorphology, University of Silesia, 111122.
Ermolin, E. & Silva Busso, A. 2008. Interaction between permafrost and groundwater on Potter Peninsula, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo), Antarctic Peninsula Region. In Wiencke, C., Ferreyra, G.A., Abele, D. & Marenssi, S., eds. The Antarctic ecosystem of Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo). Bremerhaven: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 3138.
Hallet, B., Hunter, L. & Bogen, J. 1996. Rates of erosion and sediment evacuation by glaciers: a review of field data and their implications. Global and Planetary Change, 12, 213235.
Hodson, A.J. & Ferguson, R.I. 1999. Fluvial suspended sediment transport from cold and warm-based glaciers in Svalbard. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 24, 957974.
Hopwood, M.J., Bacon, S., Arendt, K., Connelly, D.P. & Statham, P.J. 2015. Glacial meltwater from Greenland is not likely to be an important source of Fe to the North Atlantic. Biogeochemistry, 124, 111.
Jickells, T.D., An, Z.S., Andersen, K.K., Baker, A.R., Bergametti, G., Brooks, N., Cao, J.J., Boyd, P.W., Duce, R.A., Hunter, K.A., Kawahata, H., Kubilay, N., LaRoche, J., Liss, P.S., Mahowald, N., Prospero, J.M., Ridgwell, A.J., Tegen, I. & Torres, R. 2005. Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate. Science, 308, 6771.
Kim, K.Y., Lee, J., Hong, M.H., Hong, J.K., Jin, Y.K. & Shon, H. 2010. Seismic and radar investigations of Fourcade Glacier on King George Island, Antarctica. Polar Research, 29, 298310.
Kraus, S. 2005. Magmatic dyke systems of the South Shetland Islands volcanic arc (West Antarctica): reflections of the geodynamic history. PhD thesis, Ludwig-Maximilian University Munich, 130 pp. [Unpublished].
Lefévre, N. & Watson, A.J. 1999. Modelling the geochemical cycle of iron in the oceans and its impact on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 727736.
Lis, H., Shaked, Y., Kranzler, C., Keren, N. & Morel, F.M.M. 2015. Iron bioavailability to phytoplankton: an empirical approach. ISME Journal, 9, 10031013.
Majewski, W., Wellner, J.S., Szczuciński, W. & Anderson, J.B. 2012. Holocene oceanographic and glacial changes recorded in Maxwell Bay, West Antarctica. Marine Geology, 326, 6779.
Markussen, T.N., Elberling, B., Winter, C. & Andersen, T.J. 2016. Flocculated meltwater particles control Arctic land-sea fluxes of labile iron. Scientific Reports, 6, 10.1038/srep24033.
März, C., Poulton, S.W., Beckmann, B., Küster, K., Wagner, T. & Kasten, S. 2008. Redox sensitivity of P cycling during marine black shale formation: dynamics of sulfidic and anoxic, non-sulfidic bottom waters. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72, 37033717.
Monien, P., Schnetger, B., Brumsack, H.-J., Hass, H.C. & Kuhn, G. 2011. A geochemical record of late Holocene palaeoenvironmental changes at King George Island (Maritime Antarctica). Antarctic Science, 23, 255267.
Monien, P., Lettmann, K.A., Monien, D., Asendorf, S., Wölfl, A.-C., Lim, C.H., Thal, J., Schnetger, B. & Brumsack, H.-J. 2014. Redox conditions and trace metal cycling in coastal sediments from the Maritime Antarctic. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 141, 2644.
Nesbitt, H.W. & Young, G.M. 1984. Prediction of some weathering trends of plutonic and volcanic-rocks based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 48, 15231534.
Osmanoglu, B., Navarro, F.J., Hock, R., Braun, M. & Corcuera, M.I. 2014. Surface velocity and mass balance of Livingston Island ice cap, Antarctica. Cryosphere, 8, 18071823.
Pecherzewski, K. 1980. Distribution and quantity of suspended matter in Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). Polish Polar Research, 1, 7582.
Planquette, H., Sherrell, R.M., Stammerjohn, S. & Field, M.P. 2013. Particulate iron delivery to the water column of the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica. Marine Chemistry, 153, 1530.
Planquette, H., Statham, P.J., Fones, G.R., Charette, M.A., Moore, C.M., Salter, I., Nédélec, F.H., Taylor, S.L., French, M., Baker, A.R., Mahowald, N. & Jickells, T.D. 2007. Dissolved iron in the vicinity of the Crozet Islands, Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Research II - Topical Studies in Oceanography, 54, 19992019.
Pritchard, H.D., Ligtenberg, S.R.M., Fricker, H.A., Vaughan, D.G., van den Broeke, M.R. & Padman, L. 2012. Antarctic ice sheet loss driven by basal melting of ice shelves. Nature, 484, 502505.
Raiswell, R. & Canfield, D.E. 2012. The iron biogeochemical cycle past and present. Geochemical Perspectives, 1, 120.
Raiswell, R., Vu, H.P., Brinza, L. & Benning, L.G. 2010. The determination of labile Fe in ferrihydrite by ascorbic acid extraction: methodology, dissolution kinetics and loss of solubility with age and de-watering. Chemical Geology, 278, 7079.
Rignot, E., Bamber, J.L., van den Broeke, M.R., Davis, C., Li, Y.H., van de Berg, W.J. & van Meijgaard, E. 2008. Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling. Nature Geoscience, 1, 106110.
Roese, M. & Drabble, M. 1998. Wind driven circulation in Potter Cove. In Wiencke, C., Ferreyra, G.A., Arntz, W. & Rinaldi, C., eds. The Potter Cove coastal ecosystem, Antarctica. Bremerhaven: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and Buenos Aires: Instituto Antartico Argentino, 4046.
Rückamp, M., Braun, M., Suckro, S. & Blindow, N. 2011. Observed glacial changes on the King George Island ice cap, Antarctica, in the last decade. Global and Planetary Change, 79, 99109.
Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. & Ruiz-Fernández, A.C. 2012. Pb-210 sediment radiochronology: an integrated formulation and classification of dating models. Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta, 82, 183200.
Schloss, I.R., Ferreyra, G.A., Mercuri, G. & Kowalke, J. 1999. Particle flux in an Antarctic shallow coastal environment: a sediment trap study. Scientia Marina, 63 (Sup. 1), 99111.
Schloss, I.R., Wasilowska, A., Dumont, D., Almandoz, G.O., Hernando, M.P., Michaud-Tremblay, C.-A., Saravia, L., Rzepecki, M., Monien, P., Monien, D., Kopczynska, E.E., Bers, A.V. & Ferreyra, G.A. 2014. On the phytoplankton bloom in coastal waters of southern King George Island (Antarctica) in January 2010: an exceptional feature? Limnology and Oceanography, 59, 195210.
Shaked, Y. & Lis, H. 2012. Disassembling iron availability to phytoplankton. Frontiers in Microbiology, 3, 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00123.
Shaw, T.J., Raiswell, R., Hexel, C.R., Vu, H.P., Moore, W.S., Dudgeon, R. & Smith, K.L. 2011. Input, composition, and potential impact of terrigenous material from free-drifting icebergs in the Weddell Sea. Deep Sea Research II - Topical Studies in Oceanography, 58, 13761383.
Steig, E.J., Schneider, D.P., Rutherford, S.D., Mann, M.E., Comiso, J.C. & Shindell, D.T. 2009. Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year. Nature, 457, 459462. Corrigendum: Nature, 460, 766.
Varela, L. 1998. Hydrology of Matias and Potter creeks. In Wiencke, C., Ferreyra, G.A., Arntz, W. & Rinaldi, C., eds. The Potter Cove coastal ecosystem, Antarctica. Bremerhaven: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and Buenos Aires: Instituto Antartico Argentino, 3339.
Vogt, S. & Braun, M. 2004. Influence of glaciers and snow cover on terrestrial and marine ecosystems as revealed by remotely sensed data. Pesquisa Antártica Brasileira, 4, 105118.
Wagener, T., Guieu, C., Losno, R., Bonnet, S. & Mahowald, N. 2008. Revisiting atmospheric dust export to the Southern Hemisphere ocean: biogeochemical implications. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22, 10.1029/2007GB002984.
Wölfl, A.-C., Lim, C.H., Hass, H.C., Lindhorst, S., Tosonotto, G., Lettmann, K.A., Kuhn, G., Wolff, J.-O. & Abele, D. 2014. Distribution and characteristics of marine habitats in a subpolar bay based on hydroacoustics and bed shear stress estimates – Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica. Geo-Marine Letters, 34, 435446.
Yeo, J.P., Lee, J.I., Hur, S.D. & Choi, B.G. 2004. Geochemistry of volcanic rocks in Barton and Weaver peninsulas, King George Island, Antarctica: implications for arc maturity and correlation with fossilized volcanic centers. Geosciences Journal, 8, 1125.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antarctic Science
  • ISSN: 0954-1020
  • EISSN: 1365-2079
  • URL: /core/journals/antarctic-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Monien supplementary material S1
Monien supplementary material

 PDF (260 KB)
260 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Monien supplementary material S3
Monien supplementary material

 PDF (260 KB)
260 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Monien supplementary material S4
Appendix

 Unknown (62 KB)
62 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Monien supplementary material S2
Appendix

 Unknown (62 KB)
62 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed